immortalizes ancient temple
Ted Smalley Bowen,
Technology Research News
The business of studying past cultures
has come a long way since the days when scenes of pith-helmeted Western
explorers bagging historical trophies were immortalized in sepia-toned
In addition to a generally higher level of cultural sensitivity, excavations
are less damaging to the sites, and collecting digital data allows researchers
to follow up their fieldwork without carting objects home with them.
Given the many threats to archeological sites -- development, looting,
war, pollution, and time -- there's an urgency to capturing three-dimensional
images of them and archiving the material in a lasting medium.
State-of-the-art methods use laser-guided measurement tools, memory-hungry
graphics, and supercomputer-strength data analysis. But the sheer number
of sites, many of which are in less affluent countries, dictates that
cheaper, off-the-shelf configurations will have to do much of the work.
A researcher from the University of Calgary has shown that it is possible
to capture a lot with computers that are considerably less than state-of-the-art.
Richard M. Levy, an associate professor of urban planning and environmental
design, has made a computer model of a 12th century Khmer temple complex
in Phimai, Thailand using a last-generation Pentium 3 running at 733 megahertz
with a fairly modest 512 megabytes of memory, standard video card, and
32-megabyte graphics chip. The set-up can be had for well under $3,000,
according to Levy.
The reconstructed complex, a United Nations World Heritage site, includes
temples, libraries and ancillary structures.
Balancing the needs of scholars, who want the most accurate and detailed
data possible, with the need to get the information to the public, Levy
used a couple of shortcuts to do the job with his off-the-shelf computer
He used site and elevation maps to generate two-dimensional images and
three-dimensional frames of the buildings. Rather than model each stone
block and building detail individually, he used images of entire surfaces
to fill out the frames.
This allowed him to produce the three-dimensional images using much less
computer time. The trade-off is the less detailed model is not as good
for scholarly use. It would, however, allow academics to analyze structural
properties and possibly establish what materials might have been used
originally, or to figure out how to reconstruct a site, said Levy.
He also varied the level of detail, displaying foreground images most
sharply and shrouding the middle-ground and background in a convenient
The model still used 200,000 polygons, so Levy programmed the simulation
so that fewer than a third of the 3-dimensional polygons would be rendered
at any given time.
This raised the frame rate of the simulation to eight or ten frames a
second, which made a viewable virtual video. From this he made a QuickTime
virtual panorama of the site, which can be viewed over the Web and with
any system running the common QuickTime viewer.
Virtual representations of antiquities have many clear-cut uses. They
add multifaceted documentation to the historical record, far surpassing
grainy black-and-whites and jumpy film or video images. They also make
effective teaching tools and can vastly expand the audience for all forms
of archeological perusal, according to Levy.
One of the goals of the project is to raise awareness about the sites
and push authorities to enact protections, he said. "We're hoping virtual
tourism will be helpful in areas where people don't have monuments in
their complete states."
Virtual representations also allow researchers, museumgoers, tourists
and students to view a potentially limitless number of site re-creations
without disturbing any actual artifacts. "It's possible to destroy them
in the process of [physically] rebuilding them," said Levy.
One remaining question, however, is whether a virtual model will satisfy
tourists, he said. Web sites may allow tourists to examine a place without
traveling, but "are they still going to want to see the real thing?"
The medium raises other issues for digital preservationists and scholars.
A formal method for reconstructing archeological sites virtually is needed,
but is difficult to hammer out because data capture, archival and presentation
technologies are all in flux, Levy said.
At the same time, there is pressure to simply capture the data as soon
as possible, regardless of format. Financial considerations also restrict
standards, especially because there is great discrepancy in funding worldwide,
The Phimai project also made clear a key problem in trying to serve both
the scholar and the general public from a single model generated on a
low-cost PC: today's software cannot meet both the scholar's need for
accuracy and detail, and the museum, tour and school crowd's interest
in a satisfying virtual tour, Levy said.
This is because the CAD and GIS software that links geometric details
to extensive databases of information and allows new artifacts to be easily
added and cataloged does not render images very realistically. This means
making separate models for archeological site surveys and for realistic
virtual reconstructions, said Levy.
Despite its drawbacks for researchers, Levy's model "is clearly visually
stunning;" he has produced "very nice results" considering the tools he
used, said Scot Thrane Refsland, director of research and Development
at the center for Design and Visualization at the University of California
at Berkeley. The work has advanced the industry by raising the quality
of this type of model, he said. "Dealing with the performance versus accuracy
issues... is a difficult line to straddle. Dr. Levy seems to have nicely
balanced the two to gain acceptable performance and accuracy for both
the technologist and the archaeologist."
The work is ďa great starting point for site managers of historical locations
to find out how to best approach the daunting task of building a virtual
heritage model," he added.
It also highlights tensions between the main constituencies interested
in virtually preserving archaeological sites, Refsland said. "Artists
want creative freedom, and historians want the truth. One of the dangers
of virtual heritage is that every built virtual environment is going to
be the artistic interpretation of the people constructing it, no matter
how much effort is put into accuracy," he said.
Other potential projects include representations of the Khmer site at
Angkor Wat in Cambodia, sites in northern Canada, and a model showing
Calgary throughout the past century, Levy said.
Levy is scheduled to present the work at the 7th International Conference
on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia in Berkeley, California, Oct. 25-27,
2001. It was funded by the Multimedia Advanced Computational Infrastructure
project and the Canadian International Development Agency.
Funding: University, Government
TRN Categories: Applied Computing; Data Representation and
Story Type: News
Related Elements: Technical paper, "Temple Site at Phimai:
Modeling for the Scholar and the Tourist," 7th International Conference
on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia, Berkeley, California, Oct. 25-27, 2001;
Web site http://www.phimai.ca.
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