Nanotechnology: The science of building microscopic devices out of individual molecules or small numbers of molecules. The devices are measured in nanometers. A nanometer is one millionth of a millimeter, or about 10 carbon atoms long. The products of nanotechnology are likely to include tiny mechanical devices and computer circuitry far smaller than is possible with today's semiconductor technology.
Natural Language Processing: Converting information expressed in spoken and written human languages into computer input via specialized software. Natural Language Processing is at the forefront of efforts to shift the burden of effective human-computer communication onto computers.
Networking: Connecting computers to allow them to communicate and share information and resources. There are three types of computer networks: Local Area Networks connect computers within a room, building or campus. Wide Area Networks connect computers across long distances. The Internet connects university, government and corporate networks into a single, global network of networks. Layers of protocols control the flow of data over networks. The Physical Layer protocol governs the transmission of bits, in the form of electrical or light wave signals, across wires and cables. The Media Access Layer protocol (also known as Data Link Layer) controls the flow of data from the computer onto the network. Ethernet is an example of a Media Access protocol. The Network Layer protocol determines how data is routed from source to destination. Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network protocol for the Internet. The Transport Layer protocol manages the network connection for each computer and provides a consistent level of service. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the Transport protocol used in the Internet. The Application Layer protocol provides services for application programs like electronic mail and Web browsers. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Application protocol commonly used in the Internet.
Neural Network: Network of simple processors whose connections strengthen with use and weaken with disuse. This allows them to learn by example. Neural networks are modeled after the web of synapses in human and animal brains.
Numerical Analysis: Methods for computing numerical data. Applied mathematics for computing. Numerical Analysis is used to evaluate algorithms.
Numerical Computation: The basic mathematics underlying most of computing. Numerical Computation is based on floating point arithmetic, which allows binary systems to approximate decimal numbers including fractions and negative numbers.
See also Symbolic Computation.
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